VOL. LIIl.

THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEws.

Copyright, 1896, by the AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING News CoMPANY, Boston, Mass.

No. 1080.

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter. *

SEPTEMBER 5, 1896.

SuMMARY:

How French Jurisprudence deals with the Labor Unions. Archeological Researches in Roumania. The Wealthy Provincial Cities of the Roman Empire.— The more liberal Treatment of Foreigners by the French Universities. Pro- posed High Steel Tower in Chicago.—The Progress of Ar- cheological Research in Different Parts of the World.—A

Mayor objects to paying a Royalty. “i 73 History oF THE Unirep Srates Capiror.—VIL . . _-. O_p LoMBARD aND VENETIAN Vittas.—II. . . . . . «. « « 78 ee ae a a a ee er ILLUSTRATIONS :

Entrance Portico: Town-hall, Billerica, Mass. Accepted Design for the East Orange National Bank Building, East Orange, N. J.— House at Brookline, Mass.— House at New Haven, Conn.— Competitive Design for the East Orange National Bank Building, East Orange, N. J.

Palazzo Farnese, Caprarola, Italy: Portion of Painted Ceiling in the Hall of Council. Group of Wrought-iron Gates. Group of Pulpits, ete.— Group of Urban Churches.

Additional : Town-hall, Billerica, Mass. The Brandenburg Gate, Potsdam, Prussia. Entrance to Imperial Staircase in the Romer ['Town-hall], Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.— Dwelling-house in Charlottenburg, Prussia. Competitive Design for Technical Institute and Library, West Ham, Eng. Corner of Billiard-room: West Dean Park, Single- Oe Ss wt tt hh ere + +

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T is interesting to follow the progress of French jurispru- if dence in regard to labor unions, which have had a career

closely resembling that of similar organizations in this coun- try, beginning as associations for charitable purposes ; adding gradually to their aims that of monopolizing employment for their members; then falling into the hands of schemers, who have used them for political purposes, and for the oppression of innocent people, until it has become necessary for the public authority to interfere, to reduce their activity to its legitimate sphere. Until 1884, the most important law relating to the subject of labor organizations was to be found in the Code Pénal. Articles 414 and 415 of this provided that any infringe- ment of the freedom of labor, on the part of either masters or men, by violence, threats or fraud, should be punished as a misdemeanor; and Article 416 added that similar penalties should attach to such infringement “through fines, prohibi- tions, proscriptions, or interdictions pronounced in pursuance of a concerted plan.” It is evident that a law of this kind applies directly to the sort of discipline maintained by labor unions, which, by means of fines, prohibitions and interdictions, certainly interfere with the freedom of industry; and, in March, 1884, a law was passed, abrogating entirely Article 416 of the Code Pénal, and providing a set of rules for the establishment and regulation of industrial associations, both of masters and men. Under these rules, it is permissible for organizations, either of masters or men, to concert strikes or lockouts, and to discipline their members by fines or interdicts, so long as they employ peaceful means, Articles 414 and 415 of the Code Pénal, which are directed against disorder, violence and fraud, remaining in full force. Although strikes or lock- outs undoubtedly interfere with the freedom of industry, the present view of the law is that they are normal phenomena of industrial economics, not involving either criminal or civil liability. Ina case decided in 1885, by the Civil Tribunal of Lyons, it was shown that an association of manufacturers had expelled a member, and had made public announcement of the fact by advertisements in the newspapers, and by posting hand-bills in the town. The expelled manufacturer sued the association for damages, but was defeated; the Court holding that the law of 1884 gave to such associations the right, not only to use means of discipline, but to make publication of its judgments; and that, whatever might be the consequence to individuals of the exercise of this right, the persons exercising it could not be held liable for damages, unless violence, threats or fraud, such as would bring the case under Articles 414 or

HERE, however, an industrial association undertakes to W apply discipline to persons not subject to its rules, the case is quite different. Article 7 of the law of 1884 provides that ‘‘ Any member of a professional syndicate may withdraw at any moment from the association, notwithstanding any contrary clause” in the rules of the association; and the attempt to coerce any person into joining such an association is a plain violation of one of the most important clauses in the statute through which such organizations hold their legal rights. In January, 1888, a workman, named Joost, became a member of a calico-printers’ union at Bourgoin. A year later, he stopped paying his monthly dues, and considered himself as having resigned. The union warned him, but he refused to resume his membership. A few months later, a formal report was made to the union that Joost had refused to “‘ submit,” and it was voted to expel him, the members voting at the same time not to work in the same shop with him. Notice of this vote was given to his employer, M. Brunet-Lecomte, and, rather than risk a strike, the latter discharged Joost, express- ing to him his regret at being compelled to do so. Joost then made application to several other houses, but notice had been circulated that his name was on the black-list of the union, and all refused to employ him. He then applied to the Courts for relief, and, after two decisions against him, the highest Court of appeal decided in his favor, awarding him damages against the union, to the amount of ten thousand francs. In its decision, the Court pointed out that the law of 1884 gave every member of a union the absolute right to withdraw from it whenever he pleased; and said that, while concerted threats of a strike were permitted by the statute when they were in- tended to defend the professional interests of the union, they were not authorized as a means of compelling a master to dis- charge a workman because of his withdrawal from the union, or refusal to enter it. “In this case,” said the Court, “there is an infringement of the rights of others which, if the threats are effectual, renders the union liable in damages to the dis- charged workman.” Another appealed case of a similar sort has been decided in the same way, so that it is now settled law in France that unions cannot compel the discharge of non- union workmen, by threats of a strike, without rendering themselves liable in damages to the man discharged.

) JHE Government of Roumania has recently undertaken | some important archeological investigations, under the

care of Professor Tocilescu, of the University of Bucha- rest, Chief Director of the National Museum, who has already obtained valuable results. ‘The great plain of the Dobrudsha, at the mouth of the Danube, was, during the Imperial period of Rome, and even earlier, the scene of constant struggles between Romans, Greeks and barbarians, and, by the more energetic of the Emperors of the West, was fortified and col- onized as a permanent outpost. The chief garrison of the triple line of fortifications which extended across the plain was, after the fall of the Claudian Emperors, the town of Tropeum Trajani, which rose to the rank of a Roman municipium, and was adorned by Trajan with a splendid monument, erected in honor of his victory over the Dacians, from the designs of Apollodorus of Damascus, Long afterwards, the city was destroyed by the Goths, but was rebuilt by Constantine after he had driven the barbarians from the province. At present, the ancient city of Tropewum Trajani is represented by a mound of débris, some ten miles south of Rasova, which is known locally under the name of Adamklissi. On this spot Professor Tocilescu, after careful examination of the topog- raphy of the country, and of the existing remains of the triple line of fortification, decided to begin his researches; and he was rewarded by the discovery of one of the most complete Roman towns known. The little city covers an area of about twenty-six acres, and is surrounded by walls, which are strengthened by thirty-six towers, of which twelve have already been uncovered. The two main gates of the city are at the east and west, and between them runs the principal street, which is paved with stone slabs, and furnished with channels through the middle, after the manner of some of the Swiss towns, for conveying water. On this street are the remains of a Roman basilica, or court-house, and of a Byzantine church, with a mosaic floor. The monument erected by Trajan is still

415 of the Code Pénal, had been employed.

in place, as is also a mausoleum, built by Trajan in memory

74 The American Architect and Building News.

[Von LIII.—No. 1080.

of the soldiers who fell in the great battle fought near the place, and covered with inscriptions. What will be found in the humbler buildings of the town it is impossible to say, but Professor Tocilescu thinks that it bids fair to turn out almost a second Pompeii in interest.

T is curious that some of the most important discoveries of Roman antiquities have been made far from Rome. Dur- ing the Imperial period, particularly the latter part of it, the

inhabitants of the great provincial cities vied in luxury with those of the capital itself, and, although they were earlier exposed to the attacks of barbarians, they were not, asa rule, so systemati- cally and continually plundered as Rome, which, it must be remembered, was at one period left without a single living inhabitant. The consequence is that, although Rome still furnishes traces of its imperial magnificence and wealth, the barbarians have taken good care to leave none of the manifes- tations of that wealth which they found portable enough to carry away. In the provinces, the case is different. It is well known that the Roman generals took with them on their marches, an immense array of furniture, silverware and so on, so that they might feel at home wherever they went. Even Julius Caesar, who was as eager a campaigner as any of them, and noted for the rapidity of his marches, is said to have had a mosaic pavement carried about with him, and laid in his tent at every halt; and such an event as the defeat of a legion, or the capture of a Roman general, usually involved the distribution of a large amount of personal property among the victors. It will be remembered that an immense deposit of antique silverware was dug up several years ago in Germany, which was supposed to have been the camp outfit of a Roman officer, buried in order to keep it from the hands of the enemy on the occasion of a hasty march; and some of the barbarian generals brought vast spoils, collected from the plundered Italian cities, through Meesia and Dacia on their way to their homes. To this day the peasants of the Danube provinces retain a memory of Attila, who, according to the legend, ordered that the enormous treasures which he had brought with him from Italy should be buried with him, by the hands of slaves, in some spot to be selected by them, and revealed to no one else, and that the slaves, on their return from their mission, should be put to death, so that the place of his sepulture should never be known. Many attempts have been made to find the treasure of Attila, but without success, except that some gold and silver cups found a few years ago in a lonely spot were conjectured to have formed a part of it; and it is quite possible that the Roumanian mounds may prove mines of archeological wealth.

‘JS every one knows, American students in search of instruc-

tion more specialized than is afforded in this country, almost always go to the German universities for it. Occa- sionally, an American is found who has taken a degree at Oxford or Cambridge, or has followed courses at a French university, but these are rare exceptions, while hundreds of our educated men hold degrees from German universities. The reason of this is not to be looked for, perhaps, in the superiority of the German universities, so much as in the restrictions which have hitherto been imposed upon foreign students in France. ‘To many Americans, the French methods of teaching are more congenial than those of Germany, while many more speak French easily, but not German. For these reasons, a strong effort has recently been made by friends of education in this country to have admission to the French universities made easier for Americans, and the French authori- ties have responded to the appeal with great courtesy, and have already made some important concessions. The authority granted by the universities to practise a profession in France is still, as it has been for many years, reserved to French citizens, but degrees are now open to Americans, and the opportunities for study are the same for all students. T is said that a steel tower, eleven hundred and fifty feet ] high, is already in process of construction in Chicago. The plan of the structure, which is intended as a speculation, and is to be occupied by restaurants, barbers’ shops, dance- halls, a bicycle-rink, a theatre, and so on, closely resembles that of the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The base occupies an area about three hundred and twenty-five feet square, with four arches two hundred feet in span, and two hundred feet high.

Above the arches is a platform, with an open floor area of

ninety thousand square feet, which will accommodate an as-

semblage of twenty-two thousand persons. The next landing is four hundred and fifty feet above the ground, and is one hundred and fifty feet square. Above this is a succession of landings, of course diminishing in size to the top platform, which is twenty-five feet square. Thirty-four elevators are to convey passengers to various parts of the building, while stairs are provided for those who prefer to use their own muscles to transport them. Steel construction is very cheap now, and it is expected that the tower can be completed for about eight hundred thousand dollars, while the Eiffel Tower, which is not so high, cost twelve hundred thousand. According to the New York papers, the structure has already been leased for ten years to a syndicate of New York and Chicago capitalists, and is to be ready for use by next summer.

OME interesting archxological discoveries have been re- ported this week. At Mycene, a vaulted chamber, simi- lar to the so-called Treasury of Atreus, the Treasury of

Orchomenos, and other structures, which are now known to be tombs. The wonderful discoveries which Schliemann made in these tombs, in which, as he thought, he found the remains of Agamemnon, will be remembered ; and the present one has the advantage over nearly all the others known of being prac- tically intact, the fall of a huge mass of earth, in early times, having protected it from spoliation. ‘The removal of the earth will be difficult, but the labor will, apparently, be well repaid. At Babylon, Professor Hilprecht, who is in charge of the explorations being made for the University of Pennsylvania, has discovered objects of far greater antiquity than any yet found in the Euphrates valley. Until within a few years, the cones of baked clay, with inscriptions in cuneiform writing marked spirally around them, which have been found in great numbers in certain underground chambers in Mesopotamia, and some of which gare proved to have been made four or five thousand years before the Christian era, have been regarded as the oldest known works of human hands. Recently, how- ever, inscriptions have been found, at least twenty-five hun- dred years older; and Professor Hilprecht has now added to these some antiquities which cannot be of more recent date than 9,000 B.c. It is found that the site of Babylon, like that of Troy, presents a series of superposed strata of remains and débris, differing in character from one another, as the place was occupied by successive races of conquerors or colonists. Even now, the exeavations have not reached the virgin soil, and Professor Hilprecht is confident that objects will be found which can be assigned at least to the one-hundredth century B. Cc. It is with difficulty that we can conceive such antiquity. The interval between the year 10,000 B. c., remains of which Professor Hilprecht thinks he is bringing to light, and the Trojan War, is very nearly three times as great as the inter- val between the date of the Trojan War and our own time. To put it in another way, the entire history of the Roman commonwealth, from the turning of the first sod by Romulus on the Capitoline Hill to the surrender of the last of the Roman Emperors to the barbarians, might be ten times re- peated in the interval between that remote age and our own day. It is impossible not to wonder what manner of people they were who bought and sold, and made records of their contracts, in the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates twelve thousand years ago. We know something of the Egyptians of the age anterior to the building of the Pyramids. We know that they disliked to think of wars and conquests; that they decorated the walls of their buildings with pictures of innocent festivity; and that the beautiful statues which they made rep- resented their subjects with a placid smile; but whether the Mesopotamians whose work Professor Hilprecht is examining, and whose age was more remote from that of the Egyptian tomb-builders than ours is, were of like peaceful mind, or not, no one can yet say.

AYOR WARWICK, of Philadelphia, is evidently a be-

liever in the divine right of municipalities to get their

supplies, cheap if not good, from the lowest bidder. He recently declined to approve the contract for shelving in the law library of the City-hall, on the ground that the device called for by the architect who had, in fulfilment of his duty to provide a suitable fixture, examined libraries in Boston, Washington and Harrisburg—was protected by pat- ent! Seemingly, the mayor feels that an architect's specifica- tion should always include a clause declaring that “any old thing will do.”

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SepreMBER 5, 1896.]

The American Architect and Building News. 75

v HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES CAPITOL.!—VI.

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Plan of the Principal Plow of the Sash Wing Atte CAPITOL os euthorized t be but. so.

Fig. 33. Latrobe's Plan of House of Representatives after the Fire.

eral buildings would be repaired or removed to some other site

or city. Many Congressmen thought this a favorable time to remove the seat of Government to some city in which they and their constituents were personally interested. Others proposed a change of site in Washington for both the Capitol and the Presi- dent’s House. A committee was appointed by Congress to consider these questions and on November 21, 1814, this committee reported in favor of repairing the old buildings, because it would be cheaper, while to remove them would be an injustice to the property-owners

Asis the fire it was doubtful for some time whether the Fed-

AM ele tet ats i iM UI gs

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ee who had bought lots in the vicinity of these buildings with the idea 4 of their being permanently located. , February 15, 1815, Congress authorized the President (Madison) 4 to borrow five hundred thousand dollars to rebuild the public build-

ings. On the same date Madison appointed three Commissioners,

4 John P. Van Ness, T. Ringgold and Richard Bland Lee, at a sal- ary of $1,600 each, to superintend their restoration. : March 14, 1815, B. H. Latrobe was requested to call on the new 7 Commissioners in reference to retaining the place as principal ¥ , > :

ka ; e 2 a . g- 34 be’s w f Masonry V tover H f sent (not 7 xecut architectural adviser, which he held when the work stopped 1811. When the work ceased on the Capitol Latrobe went to Pitts burgh, where he was engaged in introducing steamboats west i ot \ te reserved. ( tinued from N v4, page &

rivers, and it is a little strange that Thornton had entered into the same enterprise as early as 1789, when steamboats were not in a sufficiently advanced state for him to make it successful.

Latrobe’s private enterprises, however, prevented his going to Washington to answer the summons of the Commissioners as quickly

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as they thought he should, and on March 31st they wrote a strong protest against further delay.

Latrobe arrived in Washington April 20, 1815, and was appointed to undertake the repairs of the Capitol.

On May 16th, the Commissioners wrote to President Madison : “We have employed Mr. Latrobe as architect or surveyor of the Capitol.” In the same letter they state that Latrobe had made a pre- liminary report on the Capitol and thought the south wing could be completed before 1816. This letter contains the first suggestion for changing the form of the House of Representatives. A semicircular room with a segment slightly greater than a semicircle, with com- mittee rooms beneath the galleries, was recommended by the Com- missioners, and plans on that form were submitted to President Madison for his approval. (Figs. 33 to 37.)

After a preliminary investigation Latrobe returned to Pittsburgh

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for six weeks, so as to settle his private enterprises and to bring his

family to Washington

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72 The American Architect

and Building News. [Vou. LII1. No. 1079.

On investigation, shortly after the fire, I found that the granite sills which from their situation were exposed to the minimum amount of heat, were spalled and broken into many pieces; that the window trimmings of sandstone were very badly injured and that even the brickwork in many places adjacent to the windows had scaled off, whereas the window caps of Portland cement concrete, although necessarily exposed, on account of their position, to a yet fiercer fire, were but very slightly injured.

Again, I manufacture a brick the binding ingredient of which is like that of Portland cement, namely, a hydrated crystalized silicate of lime. This brick, therefore, if Mr. Dobie’s deduction is correct, should withstand fire badly, but on the contrary, it resists fire admir- ably. It has been repeatedly built up in the form of a dry arch with the ordinary brick of various quantities and, in company with them and some fire-brick, been heated red-hot and then cooled as quickly as possible by throwing large quantities of water upon the arch and fire. Under this test the burnt-clay bricks of all kinds, including the fire-brick, have invariably gone to pieces— some only spalling slightly, others breaking up altogether. Yet, strange to say, this Portland-cement brick has never been known to break or suffer, except that its surface softens a little, but subsequently becomes hard again.

Again, a month or two ago, Messrs. A. Monsted & Company, of Mil- waukee, made some composite beams of twisted iron and concrete, the iron being made from a bar one inch square, whilst the con- crete was only three inches thick. Thus on three sides the iron was only protected by about one inch of concrete, yet notwithstanding the large proportion of iron, these beams which were heated red-hot and then plunged into cold water did not in any case separate from the iron or crack. They softened somewhat, but after exposure to the atmosphere in an ordinary chamber, became hard again.

Mr. Dobie’s experiments are undoubtedly valuable, but it is very unwise to condemn Portland-cement concrete on such grounds. Let him first learn from the trade how to make a fire-resisting concrete and then test concrete, not cement, or cement and sand, and his deductions will have more weight.

Yours truly,

Ernest L. RANSOME.

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EXCAVATIONS AT JERUSALEM. At the general meeting of the Pales- tine Exploration Fund this year, Lieutenant-Colonel Watson read the annual report, which stated that the excavations at Jerusalem, for which a firman was granted by the Porte, have been carried on by Dr. Bliss with success. An interesting rockscarp has been traced for some distance along the side of an old wall of the city, south of the present wall, and followed for over 1,000 feet. In this line of wall the remains of several ancient towers and a gateway were discovered, and no less than four sills of the ancient gateway belonging to four different pe- riods, were found in situ, one above the other. Dr. Bliss wrote, saying that he knew of no more interesting example of a place where four dis- tinct periods might be studied in the short perpendicular space of four feet. Subsequently, on following the wall toward Siloam, there was found, near the bottom of the hill, another gateway, also representing four distinct periods. A retaining-wall across the mouth of the Tyrop- ean Valley was examined. It was still too early to know the full sig- nificance of these discoveries. Dr. Bliss, in a summary of the results of the excavations, stated that near Siloam, outside the city wall, inter- esting Roman baths were discovered. ‘Their work, he added, had gone very smoothly. A buried wall was no respecter of persons, and ran through the lands of a Greek Patriarch, a Moslem Pasha, a Latin father, or a Siloam fellah, with all of whom the excavators must come to some understanding, financial or otherwise. But he was glad to say that this understanding had always been friendly. Unfortunately, most of their work had been covered up; a barley field had revealed its secrets, and once again was in superficial appearance a mere barley field. The excavations were not the only work which have been car- ried on at Jerusalem under the auspices of the Fund. The veteran explorer, Herr von Schick, has pursued investigations of a very inter- esting character within the city. His examination of medieval churches and convents in Jerusalem, and of the quarter known as Bab Hytta, threw a flood of light on the condition of the Holy City during

the period covered by the Crusaders’ occupation of it. London Standard.

Tue Scnoois or Atnens.— Mr. Morley, in an interesting and sug- gestive speech at the recent meeting of subscribers to the British School at Athens, described himself as neither a scholar nor an archeologist. An archeologist he certainly is not, says the London News. But he is one of those who maintain the standard of classical knowledge in public life, and exemplify in their style the permanent influence of Greek literature upon the world. The schools at Athens are intended to sup- ply the archeological evidence which has already produced so many fruitful discoveries, and added so much to our knowledge of ancient life. The contribution of the British Government to this object is not liberal. It is £400 a year, as compared with £3,000 from France and £2,000 from the United States. But we are not altogether disposed to blame the Government. The objects of the British School at Athens are excellent, and knowledge is valuable to the whole community, not merely to a few persons of superior culture. At the same time, the bearing of Hellenic studies upon the ordinary business of mankind does not impress itself, and cannot easily be impressed, upon tax-payers who have been debarred by circumstances from the pursuit of learning.

On the other hand, there are rich people who thoroughly understand the nature of the work done at Athens, and who could keep the School out of difficulties with no inconvenience to themselves. To them, or to some of them, Mr. Morley’s speech should appeal. ‘The lamented death of Professor Curtius gave Mr. Morley an opportunity of comparing him with the great English historians of Greece. There can be no higher praise, even for Curtius, than the acknowledgment that he ranks with Thirlwall and Grote. But it is true, as Mr. Morley says, that Curtius had a peculiar power of making antiquities vivid, and imaginative con- ceptions real. He was a great man, and he belonged to a nation where the government undertakes research. Here we rely chiefly upon pri- vate munificence, and we seldom rely upon it in vain.

First BuiLpeR oF THE Vatican. The present existence of this palace is principally due to Nicholas V, the builder pope, whose gi- gantic scheme would startle a modern architect. His plan was to build the church of St. Peter’s as a starting-point, and then to construct one vast central “habitat”? for the papal administration, covering the whole of what is called the Borgo, from the Castle of Sant’ Angelo to the Cathedral. In ancient times a portico, or covered way supported on columns, led from the bridge to the church, and it was probably from this real structure that Nicholas began his imaginary one, only a small part of which was ever completed. That small portion alone comprises the basilica and the Vatican Palace, which together form by far the greatest continuous mass of buildings in the world. The Colos- seum is 195 yards long by 156 broad, including the thickness of the walls. St. Peter’s Church alone is 205 yards long and 156 broad, so that the whole Colosseum would easily stand upon the ground-plan of the church, while the Vatican Palace is more than half as large again. Nicholas V died in 1455, and the oldest parts of the present Vatican Palace are not older than his reign. They are generally known as the Torre Borgia, from having been inhabited by Alexander VI, who died of poison in the third of the rooms now occupied by the library, count- ing from the library side. The windows of these rooms look upon the large square court of the Belvedere, and that part of the palace is not visible from without. Portions of the substructure of the earlier build- ing were no doubt utilized by Nicholas, and the secret gallery which connects the Vatican with the Mausoleum of Hadrian is generally at- tributed to Pope John XXIII, who died in 1417; but, on the whole, it may be said that the Vatican Palace is originally a building of the period of the Renaissance, to which all successive popes have made ad- ditions. F. Marion Crawford, in the August Century.

PaintinG Bronze Statues. An interesting experiment is now being tried on the statue of James II which is the ornament of Whitehall Gardens. Workmen, having carefully cleaned the bronze, which was in a very filthy condition, are now apparently varnishing it, but are in reality painting it with a very thin solution of a certain chemical pro- duct, the use of which in such a connection is the invention of Prof. A. H. Church, F. R.S. We believe that one of the latest acts of Lord Leighton was recommending the Office of Works to apply to Professor Church for advice in this matter. The eminent chemist has for years past been experimenting on this mode of preserving the patina of bronze, but has never before had the opportunity of trying it on a pub- lic work. It is understood that, when perfectly dry, this delicate coat- ing will take a high and durable polish; and, if so, the question of enabling bronze to endure the London smuts and dirt will perhaps be solved. The examination of the statue, a masterpiece from the hand of Grinling Gibbons, and certainly one of the most precious works of public art in England, led to the discovery of a large hole in the shoul- der, in which rain-water was settling, and which was disintegrating the mass. This will be stopped up, and the roll in the monarch’s hand, which was found to be merely painted wood, will be replaced by a rolled scroll of bronze. Unfortunately, when the work was cleaned last, some years ago, too great violence was employed, and the surface imperatively calls for treatment. If Professor Church’s experiment is successful, it is to be hoped that the process will be applied to other statues in our streets. Much of the sculpture in London has far more artistic merit than its present dilapidated condition leads the hasty passer-by to suppose. Pall Mall Gazette.

LIGHTNING AND Derorestation.—“ As a rule,” says the Lancet, ‘‘lightning-stroke is most common in the open air, generally under the tree to which the victim has resorted for shelter, and this circumstance, even where only severe injury has been sustained, makes death more likely, as the measures for relieving shock and restoring the vital energies cannot be put in practice till too late. But this year the majority of fatalities from lightning have occurred in dwelling-houses. There is no doubt that for this greater frequency of thunder storms, as for the more prolonged drought and such like meteorological visita- tions of latter years, the steady tree-felling, unbalanced by tree-plant- ing, is directly responsible.’”’ This account is fully borne out by the reports which have from week to week appeared in L’Elettricita, that journal regularly giving a certain amount of space to the subject.

TROLLEY-WIRE Supports 1x Cuemnitz. Chemnitz, Saxony, has a trolley line without poles, the owners of houses on the streets through which the line was to pass without exception allowing the use of their houses free, rather than have the poles set in the walk. The trolley- wires are supported by cross wires held by projecting hooks firmly fastened into the houses on each side of the street, an ornamental rosette surrounding each hook so that the hooks are by no means un- sightly. Providence Journal.

Tue Prince or OranGe’s Empty Toms at Papua.— Italians gener- ally accomplish what they set about. When Prince Philibert of Orange’s grave was found to be empty at Padua recently, they began to hunt for him, and have now presented to the Dutch authorities a small casket containing the Prince’s ashes. It seems that his body was cremated in 1530, after the siege of Florence. The Collector.

S.J. PARKHILL & Co., Printers, Boston, U.S. A.

‘Aveust 29, 1896.] The American Architect and Building News.

The Yale Locks, Builders’ Hardware,

firt Metal Work.

hardware bears this

All Genuine Wale Trademark,

Trefoil

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co.

General Offices: Western Office: 84-86 Chambers St., Dew York. 152-154 Wabash Ave., Chicago.

Local Offices : Philadelphia, Boston, Buffalo and San Francisco.

Works: Stamford, Conn., Branford, Conn.

iv The American Architect and Building News. (Von, LII.—No. 1079. °

No. XXVIII.

?

NA AND ANTONINUS, IN THE GARDENS OF THE VILLA BORGHESE, ROME.

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ACCESSORIES OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE.

TEMPLE OF

Avéust 29, 1896.] The American Architect and Building News.

Vii

*EDGMONT.”. MES. J. Macy Avon NY, ' Harry W. Jones, Arn’, /AINNEAPQUS,

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“LICHEN GRAY,”

A NEW SHADE IN

CABOT’S CREOSOTE SHINGLE STAIN.

A Soft, rock-gray with a delicate greenish cast which gives admirably the color effect of a lichen-

grown bowlder.

A particularly appropriate and harmonious tone for country houses. It is known as

No. 1174 SPECIAL.

SAMPLES ON APPLICATION.

SAMUEL CaBoT, Sole Manufacturer,

BOSTON, MASS.

Agents at all Central Points.

viii The American Architect and Building News, (Vou. LIII.— No. 1079.

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